Posts Categorized: Archives (2014-2016)

Terahertz wireless technology could bring fiber-optic speeds out of a fiber

Terahertz wireless technology could bring fiber-optic speeds out of a fiber

Hiroshima, Japan — Hiroshima University, the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, and Panasonic Corporation announced the development of a terahertz (THz) transmitter capable of signal transmission at a per-channel data rate of over ten gigabits per second over multiple channels at around 300 GHz. The aggregate multi-channel data rate exceeds one hundred gigabits per second. The transmitter was implemented as a silicon CMOS integrated circuit, which would have a great advantage for commercialization and consumer use. This technology could open a new frontier in wireless communication with data rates ten times higher than current technology allows. Details of the technology were presented at the “International Solid-State Circuit Conference… Read more

Latest developments on the science of chiral materials discussed at ChiMag2016 Symposium

Latest developments on the science of chiral materials discussed at ChiMag2016 Symposium

The ChiMag 2016 Symposium is to be held from Sunday, Feb. 21 to Wednesday, Feb. 24 at Oriental Hotel Hiroshima in Hiroshima, Japan. The purpose of the symposium is to offer a good opportunity for researchers worldwide pursuing the nature of chiral magnets to discuss and exchange ideas. The main topics for the symposium are as follows: Nonlinear and topological spin textures in chiral magnets Probing spin chirality and crystallographic chirality by electron, neutron, X-ray, muon, and ultrasound beams Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in crystals with broken chiral symmetry Systematic synthesis of chiral magnetic crystals, including molecular-based, transition-metal, and rare-earth-based crystals Physics of helical and chiral superconductivity The online registration form is… Read more

A clue to generate electric current without energy consumption at room temperature

A clue to generate electric current without energy consumption at room temperature

  A group of researchers in Japan and China identified the requirements for the development of new types of extremely low power consumption electric devices by studying Cr-doped (Sb, Bi)2Te3 thin films. This study has been reported in Nature Communications. At extremely low temperatures, an electric current flows around the edge of the film without energy loss, and under no external magnetic field. This attractive phenomenon is due to the material’s ferromagnetic properties; however, so far, it has been unclear how the material gains this property. For the first time, researchers have revealed the mechanism by which this occurs. “Hopefully, this achievement will lead to the creation of novel materials that… Read more

An alternative TALEN/CRISPR-mediated gene insertion technique described in detail

An alternative TALEN/CRISPR-mediated gene insertion technique described in detail

  A streamlined protocol for an alternative gene insertion method using genome editing technologies, the PITCh (Precise Integration into Target Chromosome) system, has been reported in Nature Protocols by Specially Appointed Lecturer Tetsushi Sakuma, Professor Takashi Yamamoto, Specially Appointed Associate Professor Ken-Ichi T Suzuki, and their colleagues at Hiroshima University, Japan. The PITCh system is more convenient and effective than existing methods for inserting foreign DNA into targeted genomic loci by using genome-editing tools. This new versatile technique can aid the rapid progression of research in fields such as screening of new drug candidates and creating cell or animal models of human diseases. Genome editing is an innovative technique used in genetic… Read more

A Japanese multicenter clinical study on the prevention of stroke recurrence by statin

A Japanese multicenter clinical study on the prevention of stroke recurrence by statin

The results of “The Japan Statin Treatment Against Recurrent Stroke (J-STARS)” study led to the hypothesis that statins reduce the occurrence of strokes due to larger artery atherosclerosis. J-STARS examined whether pravastatin, a traditional statin widely used in the clinic, reduces the recurrence of strokes and respective subtypes in non-cardioembolic stroke patients. The study also examined whether the use of pravastatin favorably impacts the occurrence of other vascular events, and stroke-related functional outcomes were explored. Statins are widely used to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. High cholesterol levels are associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, so statins are thought to be beneficial for stroke prevention. However, these findings are… Read more

New membrane may solve fresh water shortages

New membrane may solve fresh water shortages

  Researchers at Hiroshima University have developed a technology that improves the removal of salt from seawater, a breakthrough that may alleviate the increasing demand for fresh water in some countries. “A global shortage of fresh water is a long-term challenge that mankind faces in this century,” said the director of the ROBUST membrane project, Professor Toshinori Tsuru. Professor Tsuru and his team have designed a new kind of ultra-thin layered membrane that acts as a sieve and separates salt from seawater to produce fresh water, a technique known as reverse osmosis. The membrane is partly made from silicon and overcomes several challenges of existing designs by tolerating the harsh… Read more

Wearable equipment supports human motion where and when needed

Wearable equipment supports human motion where and when needed

  A new model of pneumatic muscle and an active type of assistive equipment incorporating this pneumatic muscle has been developed at Hiroshima University and Daiya Industry Co. Ltd., Japan. This wearable equipment, called the Unplugged Powered Suit (UPS), supports human movement without requiring any electronic devices and tanks because it employs a newly developed pneumatic muscle named Pneumatic Gel Muscle (PGM) as an actuator. The UPS improves the quality of life of not only elderly individuals but also healthy people who enjoy sports activities. The UPS will be displayed at the International Robot Exhibition 2015 in December. To prevent injury and accidents by aging and muscle fatigue, it is… Read more

New approach allows better modelling of crucial economic activities over time

New approach allows better modelling of crucial economic activities over time

  Researchers in Japan and the UK and USA have developed a better method for modelling important kinds of economic data that may be useful for studying workforces, economic development, health, macroeconomics and other phenomena that vary over time. Dr. Kazuhiko Hayakawa from Hiroshima University and Professor M. Hashem Pesaran from the Trinity College of Cambridge and the University of Southern California present their new and improved approach in the Journal of Econometrics. The new method improves existing techniques for modelling the kind of data that economists call “panel data”, which comes from observing individuals, states, countries, firms and so on, over multiple time periods. Because panel data include observations of… Read more

Studying cancer DNA in blood may help personalize treatment in liver cancer

Studying cancer DNA in blood may help personalize treatment in liver cancer

  Fragments of cancer DNA circulating in a patient’s bloodstream could help doctors deliver more personalized treatment for liver cancer, Japanese researchers report. The new research may help address a particular challenge posed by liver cancers, which can be difficult to analyze safely. One serious risk of existing biopsy methods is that doctors who want to obtain a tumor sample for analysis might cause the cancer to spread into the space around organs. “Doctors need non-invasive methods that will allow them to safely study cancer progression and characterize the genomic features of a patient’s tumor,” said Professor Kazuaki Chayama, a principal investigator in this study. “Testing for these circulating DNA… Read more

New model for hepatitis B helps identify potential new therapeutic approach

New model for hepatitis B helps identify potential new therapeutic approach

A promising new avenue for treating hepatitis B has been reported by researchers at Hiroshima University who have developed a new animal model of the disease. About two million people worldwide have been exposed to hepatitis B virus. Liver transplantation is often necessary to save the lives of patients who have severe liver damage that results from acute overreaction of the immune system. To develop therapies against acute hepatitis, an appropriate animal model is necessary. “The number of patients who can receive liver transplantation is limited, so there is an urgent need to develop new treatment options,” said Professor Kazuaki Chayama. Professor Chayama and his research group used mice with… Read more