Posts Categorized: Archives (2014-2016)

A microbial metabolite of linoleic acid ameliorates intestinal inflammation

A microbial metabolite of linoleic acid ameliorates intestinal inflammation

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, are hard to completely cure. Globally, IBDs affect more than 4 million people, today. However, Professor Soichi Tanabe (Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University) and his collaborators have demonstrated that 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA), a gut microbial metabolite of linoleic acid, has a suppressive effect on intestinal inflammation. HYA is expected to be practically applied as a functional food. The results of this group’s research were published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry as “A gut microbial metabolite of linoleic acid, 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, ameliorates intestinal epithelial barrier impairment partially via GPR40-MEK-ERK pathway” DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M114.610733. IBD patients characteristically demonstrate increased expression of tumor… Read more

HiSIM-SOTB, compact transistor model, selected as international industry standard

HiSIM-SOTB, compact transistor model, selected as international industry standard

A new compact transistor model was developed and the framework for realizing a faster design support process and product development for integrated circuits in the ultra-low voltage category was established. The new compact model, HiSIM-SOTB (Hiroshima University STARC IGFET Model Silicon-on-Thin BOX), was developed by Hiroshima University’s HiSIM Research Center in collaboration with its partners in the industry and government institutions, including the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) of Japan. On June 20, 2014, after a two-year-long effort by the industry/government/academia research team, this new model was selected as an international industry standard during a meeting in Washington D.C., which was held by the Compact Modeling… Read more

What are the mechanisms of zooxanthella expulsion from coral?

What are the mechanisms of zooxanthella expulsion from coral?

Coral bleaching, which often results in the mass mortality of corals and in the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world, with the number of coral reefs decreasing annually. Associate Professor Kazuhiko Koike and Ms. Lisa Fujise of the Graduate School of Biosphere Science at Hiroshima University and their collaborators have proposed mechanisms that might cause coral bleaching and damage. This research group demonstrated that corals more actively digest and expel damaged symbiotic zooxanthellae under conditions of thermal stress, and that this is likely to be a mechanism that helps corals to cope with environmental change. On the other hand, if the stressful conditions… Read more

International conference on the 4-dimensional organization of the nucleus

International conference on the 4-dimensional organization of the nucleus

‘The 4-D Nucleome 2014’ will be held in Hiroshima, Japan In 1944, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger published a book entitled “What Is Life?” in Ireland. Seventy years later, you might get a hint of the answer by exploring the world of “4D Nucleome” in Japan. The latest advances in understanding the principles behind the three-dimensional organization of the cell nucleus in space and time (the 4th dimension) will be presented at an international conference, “The 4D Nucleome 2014,” in Hiroshima, Japan, from December 17 to 20, 2014. The conference will be hosted by the Research Center for the Mathematics on Chromatin Live Dynamics (RCMCD) of Hiroshima University. The conference… Read more

A novel technique for gene insertion by genome editing

A novel technique for gene insertion by genome editing

Easy, accurate, and highly efficient gene knock-in in a variety of cells and organisms Using a novel gene knock-in technique, effective insertion of an exogenous gene was demonstrated in human cells and in animal models, including silkworms and frogs. This strategy universally enables gene knock-in not only in cultured cells, but also in various organisms. Genome editing using programmable nucleases enables homologous recombination (HR)-mediated gene knock-in. HR activity, however, is relatively low in most cultured cells and organisms. This problem presents technical hurdles for the application of HR-mediated knock-in technology in the field of life sciences. Professor Takashi Yamamoto and his colleagues, Dr. Ken-ichi T. Suzuki and Dr. Tetsushi Sakuma,… Read more

Establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells from Werner syndrome fibroblasts

Establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells from Werner syndrome fibroblasts

Milestone for understanding diseases and for the development of new therapies Associate Professor Akira Shimamoto and Professor Hidetoshi Tahara at the Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Science in Hiroshima University, Professor Koutaro Yokote at the Graduate School of Medicine in Chiba University, Visiting Professor Makoto Goto at the Medical Center East in Tokyo Women’s Medical University, and collaborators including the staff at the Cancer Chemotherapy Center in the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tottori University, and Keio University established induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from the fibroblasts of Werner Syndrome patients. These results were published in PLOS ONE in an article entitled “Reprogramming Suppresses Premature Senescence Phenotypes of Werner Syndrome Cells… Read more