Posts Tagged: medicine

New targets for reducing nerve pain identified

New targets for reducing nerve pain identified

A specific molecule involved in maintaining pain after a nerve injury has been identified and blocked in mice by Hiroshima University researchers.  These results reveal a promising therapeutic strategy for treating neuropathic pain. Mice with an injury to their sciatic nerve showed less pain after multiple injections of a drug that blocks the activity of a molecule called high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1).  Researchers also discovered that a single dose of a drug to block the activity of a different molecule, called matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), could also alleviate pain from the injury. The chemical pathways that these drugs use to inhibit HMGB1 or MMP-9 are different from common pain relievers, like… Read more

Pathway to better metabolism discovered in fat cells

Pathway to better metabolism discovered in fat cells

Control over obesity and diabetes may be one step closer thanks to a Hiroshima University study in fat tissue. The research team of Professor Kazunori Imaizumi, PhD, at Hiroshima University has mapped the activation pathway for a protein responsible for burning excess energy in the body. If the pathway can be confirmed in living animal studies, control of this pathway may lead to treatments for obesity and related metabolic diseases.  Researchers studied mouse fat cells growing in a dish using a combination of chemical treatments and protein measurements. Part of the pathway involves a protein found only in brown fat cells.  Fat cells are classified as either brown or white.  White… Read more

New electronic stethoscope and computer program diagnose lung conditions

New electronic stethoscope and computer program diagnose lung conditions

The classic stethoscope has entered the digital age. Medical researchers have created a computer program that connects to an electronic stethoscope to classify lung sounds into five common diagnostic categories. The Respiratory Sounds Visualizer computer program and the new electronic stethoscope with a high sensitivity for lung sounds were developed by a team of three physician researchers at Hiroshima University and Fukushima Medical University, in collaboration with the industrial company Pioneer Corporation. Recorded lung sounds of 878 patients were classified by respiratory specialist doctors.  The researchers then turned these diagnoses into templates to create a mathematical formula that evaluates the length, frequency, and intensity of lung sounds.  The computer program… Read more

New genetic cause of gastric and prostate cancer identified

New genetic cause of gastric and prostate cancer identified

Researchers at Hiroshima University have opened the door to finding a new class of cancer-causing genetic variations. Using a combination of pre-existing electronic databases and their own experiments with cancerous and healthy cells, researchers linked stomach (gastric) and prostate cancer to a specific type of DNA called transcribed-ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs).  This approach will likely reveal more links between T-UCRs and other cancers in the future. Modern research studies, like this one led by Professor Wataru Yasui, the Dean of the Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences at Hiroshima University, are enhancing traditional understandings of cancer genetics. The human genome is made of lots of DNA, but only… Read more