Posts Tagged: geology

Lasers melt rocks to reveal development of super-Earths and how giant impacts make magma

Lasers melt rocks to reveal development of super-Earths and how giant impacts make magma

Advanced laser shock technique puts magmas under highest-ever pressures New experiments provide insight into how Earth-type planets form when giant asteroids or planetesimals collide and how the interiors of such planets develop. Researchers at Hiroshima University, Osaka University, Ehime University, University of Tokyo, and the Chiba Institute of Technology collaborated to publish their research in the August 3, 2016 issue of Science Advances. “Our results provide a better understanding how impact-generated magmas evolve and allow us to model Earth-type planets’ inner structures. Collisions at these extreme temperatures and pressures created our own Earth and may have also formed the mantles of other Super Earth planets, for example CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b,”… Read more

Bubble volcano

Bubble volcano

Shaking, popping by earthquakes may cause eruptions A new study on the connection between earthquakes and volcanoes took its inspiration from old engineering basics.  Future applications of these results may enable better predictions of the likelihood of a volcanic eruption for communities affected by an earthquake. If you swirl wine in a glass too strongly, the wine crashes against the sides and spills over the top.  The same swirling and crashing, technically termed “sloshing,” happens when transporting liquids on trucks or ships.  Large liquid containers must be specially designed to avoid damage as the vehicle shakes and the liquid sloshes.  Strong earthquakes can even damage large petroleum tanks. When earthquakes… Read more

Geomorphology Research at the Mashiki Earthquake

Geomorphology Research at the Mashiki Earthquake

Mashiki is a small town in southwestern Japan, Kumamoto Prefecture, which was near the epicenter of two major earthquakes on Thursday, April 14, 2016 and on Saturday, April 16, 2016. Hiroshima University researchers Hideaki Goto, PhD, and Yasuhiro Kumahara, PhD, specialize in geomorphology – studying the shape of Earth’s surface.  They arrived in Kumamoto on Friday to collect data after Thursday evening’s earthquake.  They were shaken awake at about 1:30am on Saturday by the second, larger earthquake in Mashiki.  These photos from Saturday afternoon in Mashiki show some of the damage that local residents experienced.   The damage in Mashiki after Saturday’s earthquake was unexpected because the town is about… Read more